Complex Trauma & Polyvictimization in LGBTQ Commercially Exploited & Urban Minority
This compelling review article by Dr. Joseph Spinazzola and his colleagues bridges multiple disciplines, including criminology, juvenile justice and medicine. It defines and clarifies the many terms used in these fields to describe violence and its effects, and offers a unifying common language. It takes into account systemic factors that disproportionately increase risk of violence and perpetuation of intergenerational cycles of trauma, and demonstrates the greater susceptibility to polyvictimization and likelihood of stigmatization of members of vulnerable communities and cultures. Illustrated through a consideration of the challenges faced by three groups-- LGBTQ youth and young adults; commerical sexually exploited individuals; and urban communities of color-- this article provides a guiding framework for social service providers, educators, law enforcement, judiciaries and policy makers in their efforts to reduce health disparities and foster understanding, compassion and effective response for all those impacted by complex trauma. Read the article.