A type of interpersonal trauma and one of the two primary forms of psychological maltreatment. Traumas of commission, emotional abuse involves the perpetration of harmful, typical intentional acts, including bullying, terrorizing, coercive control, and threats of violence or abandonment. This often but not always involves expressions of verbal abuse, including insults, denigration, belittlement, mockery, verbal intimidation, and shaming. Most often perpetrated by parents or other adults against children in their care but can occur in the context of any ongoing relationship, including but not limited to intimate partner and peer relationships, elder care, coaching, teaching, and residential programming. Can intersect with racism, sexism, homophobia, and other forms of prejudice.