A form of psychological maltreatment in which a person comes to question the reality of their experience within a relationship. In such a dyad, the individual enacting the gaslighting behavior might deny or downplay hurtful incidents or patterns in the relationship when confronted, or may actively manipulate the victim to believe that their perceptions are inaccurate. Like other forms of psychological maltreatment, gaslighting can occur with varying levels of intensity or malevolence. In some instances, an individual with power in a relationship might minimize harmful dynamics out of their own guilt or denial in the aftermath of a negative encounter. For example, a parent may dismiss their child’s expressed fears related to chaotic dynamics in the home. An adult sibling might deny abuse in their family of origin and invalidate the experience of another sibling. In more overt examples, an intimate partner might conduct themself in a manner that is verbally abusive, and then deny their statements. A high school student might spread humiliating rumors about their peer, and then laugh it off and claim to be joking. Gaslighting can also occur at a systemic level, such as discrediting the impact of microaggressions on the daily lives of BIPOC.